Tuesday, March 29, 2011

A Statistical Look at Rural Jalisco, Mexico

I've spent the past several days going through statistical data about the Mexican villages I visited in the municipality of Cuquio, in the state of Jalisco. I've presented the data below in as clear a way as I could. It covers population, employment, income, health care, literacy, education, housing, utilities, and technology. Enjoy!


The Mexican state of Jalisco
Percent Born in Jalisco84.8%84.4%
Percent born outside Jalisco13.4%13.1%
*Unless noted, where figures do not add up to 100% it is because there is a small percent of the population that is "Not Specified."

Cuquio: A municipality within Jalisco
(A municipality is a Mexican government district that is roughly equivalent to a county. Each municipality is a city plus the surrounding rural area, including many villages.)

Born in Jalisco94.6%94.6%
Born outside Jalisco3.5%3%

Ojo de Agua Colorada
Ojo de Agua Colorada is a small village, or "rancho," within the municipality of Cuquio. As you can see, the population decreased substantially in the 1990s and increased slightly since 2000. More men have left than women, and as you'll see below, over 30 percent of homes were vacant in 2010. Sadly, as you'll see, the men leave to find work elsewhere (often in the U.S.) as young as age 12. U.S. child labor laws do not apply in agriculture. The rate at which people are leaving this town are even greater if you consider that there are about 5 kids born per year.

Percent born in Jalisco96.794.5
Born outside Jalisco0.81.2

Of the 253 people remaining in the town, they break down as follows:
  • Ages 4 and under: 34 people (13.4%)
  • Ages 5 to 11: 40 people (15.8%)
  • Teens (12-17): 31 people (12.3%) - 11 men, 20 women
  • Adults (18-59): 113 people (44.7%) - 51 men, 62 women
  • Elderly (60 and up): 35 people (13.8%) - 17 men, 18 women

Los Sauces de Perez
Los Sauces de Perez is another small rancho in Cuquio I visited. The population here has actually grown in the last decade, but if you look at the gender ratio of adults, you'll see that there are 33 men ages 18 to 59 compared with 43 women. The 1990 data spreadsheet did not include any data for Los Sauces de Perez. I think they actually included the data, just under the wrong town's name, but I could not be sure so I did not include it.

Born in Jalisco99.5%97%
Born outside Jalisco00

Of the 202 people in the town, they break down as follows:
  • Ages 4 and under: 24 people (11.9%)
  • Ages 5 to 11: 44 people (21.8%)
  • Teens (12-17): 39 people (19.3%) - 22 men, 17 women
  • Adults (18-59): 76 people (39.1%) - 33 men, 43 women
  • Elderly (60 and up): 19 people (9.4%) - 10 men, 9 women

Varas Dulces
Varas Dulces is the third rancho in Cuquio I've included data for here. It is located very close to Ojo de Agua Colorada. The population of Varas Dulces shrunk during the 1990s but increased very slightly in the last decade. The gender imbalance is not so severe here, as there are 51 men ages 18 to 59 compared to 54 women.

Born in Jalisco95%98.4%
Born outside Jalisco2.2%0.5%

Of the 183 people remaining in the town, they break down as follows:
  • Ages 4 and under: 19 people (10.4%)
  • Ages 5 to 11: 18 people (9.8%)
  • Teens (12-17): 24 people (13.1%) - 15 men, 9 women
  • Adults (18-59): 105 people (57.4%) - 51 men, 54 women
  • Elderly (60 and up): 17 people (9.3%) - 9 men, 8 women

Average number of live births for women over age 12 in 2010:
  • Jalisco: 2.38
  • Cuquio: 3
  • Ojo de Agua Colorada: 3.48
  • Los Sauces de Perez: 3.73
  • Varas Dulces: 2.68

(The data here understates the big families by averaging all women over age 12. Women don't all start their families as young as 12, and even those who will eventually go on to have many children don't do so instantaneously at the start of their childbearing years. I've seen families wit up to 13 kids in Jalisco, and I've routinely seen families with more than 9 kids. That doesn't mean that the younger generation wants to have as many kids as their parents did, but they also haven't had enough time to do so just yet.)

Health Care
Either the 2010 spreadsheet had its columns mislabeled or Mexico has seen a huge increase in health coverage over the past decade. I double and triple checked the spreadsheets to make sure that I was reporting their data correctly. I am. But I'm still not certain they are correct.

Percent of population without healthcare53.834.5
Percent with healthcare44.364.1
Percent with IMSS41.241.4
Percent with ISSSTE2.72.7

Percent of population without healthcare8732.9
With healthcare10.466.4
With IMSS7.74.7
With ISSSTE2.72.7

Ojo de Agua Colorada
Percent of population without healthcare97.928.1
With healthcare071.9
With IMSS00.8

Los Sauces de Perez
Percent of population without healthcare93.911.4
With healthcare5.688.6
With IMSS5.60

Varas Dulces
Percent of population without healthcare95.614.8
With healthcare1.185.2
With IMSS1.10

The following shows the percent of the population over age 15 that cannot read and write.

Ojo de Agua Colorada42.635.421.8
Los Sauces de Perez21.415.8
Varas Dulces34.727.218

The same information, in a graph:

The following only measures population over the age of 15, reflecting the highest level of education achieved. All numbers are percentages. Primary school is grades 1-6. Secondary school is the equivalent of junior high. Mexicans attend high school after secondary school.

No schooling11.58.15.5
Incomplete primary23.918.412.6
Complete primary21.721.617.6
Some post primary education41.451.164.3
Incomplete secondary5.45.5
Complete secondary18.522
Education above secondary27.236.8

No schooling22.618.812.8
Incomplete primary38.731.824
Complete primary24.129.227.8
Some post primary education11.319.6
Incomplete secondary4.55
Complete secondary8.816.8
Education above secondary6.913.6

Ojo de Agua Colorada
No schooling5040.326.1
Incomplete primary22.327.123
Complete primary16.926.425.5
Some post primary education4.76.3
Incomplete secondary2.16.1
Complete secondary3.515.8

Los Sauces de Perez
No schooling31.322.8
Incomplete Primary33.930.7
Complete Primary3333.3
Incomplete Secondary0.93.5
Complete Secondary0.99.6

Varas Dulces
No schooling5041.219.5
Incomplete primary23.718.419.5
Complete primary24.636.819.5
Some post primary1.74
Incomplete secondary3.55.3
Complete secondary024.1

Average highest grade of schooling achieved by population over 15 in 2010:
  • Jalisco: 8.78
  • Cuquio: 5.95
  • Ojo de Agua Colorada: 4.41
  • Los Sauces de Perez: 3.97
  • Varas Dulces: 5.73

Put a different way, here is the highest grade level achieved by the population over age 15 of these three villages for 2010. "Other" means either "did not respond" or "went to high school" and I don't know which.

If you look at the numbers a different way, just looking at how many people TOTAL went to primary school, secondary, etc (i.e. not tallying highest grade achieved), here's how it looks over the last 2 decades for populations over age 15 of the three villages:

Here, all numbers are for people over the age of 12. Economically active means working or looking for work. I've calculated employment as the percent of those who are economically active who are employed. I've calculated the percent employed in agriculture as a percent of the employed population.

Economically active44.852.655.8
Economically inactive55.247.143.6
Employed in agriculture15.110

Economically active34.336.842.5
Economically inactive65.762.657.5
Employed in agriculture67.952.3

Ojo de Agua Colorada
Economically active28.822.931.2
Economically inactive71.376.568.8
Employed in agriculture59.162.9

Los Sauces de Perez
Economically active37.129.5
Economically inactive62.970.5
Employed in Agriculture86.7

Varas Dulces
Economically active34.326.933.3
Economically inactive65.773.166.7
Employed in agriculture95.791.7

This table shows income levels in the year 2000. All numbers are expressed as a percent of the employed population.

JaliscoCuquioOjo de Agua ColoradaLos Sauces de PerezVaras Dulces
Employed, no income5.633.745.751.155.6
Less than minimum wage0.810.5204.416.7
1-2 times minimum wage27.224.425.715.619.4
2-5 times minimum wage40.820.75.711.10
6-10 minimum wage8.72.8000
10+ minimum wage3.90.8000

Homes and Utilities

In 2010, the Mexican government began reporting on the percent of occupied vs. unoccupied homes. The third category, which accounts for any failure for the numbers to add up to 100%, are homes that are temporarily occupied for part of the year.

JaliscoCuquioOjo de Agua ColoradaLos Sauces de PerezVaras Dulces
Uninhabited Homes15.7%21%30.3%1.9%5.6%
Homes with full-time Occupants78.8%72.5%68.5%78.8%87%

Average Number of Occupants Per Home 2010
  • Jalisco: 4.01
  • Cuquio: 3.97
  • Ojo de Agua Colorada: 4.15
  • Los Sauces de Perez: 4.93
  • Varas Dulces: 3.89

Percent of homes that in 2010...
JaliscoCuquioOjo de Agua ColoradaLos Sauces de PerezVaras Dulces
Have a dirt floor34.311.52.412.8
Have only 1 room3.31.5000
Have a toilet97.691.385.282.972.3
Have running water94.251.3046.323.4
Have drainage97.390.488.57870.2
Have electricity98.998.598.497.6100
Have a fridge92.78790.285.493.6
Have a TV96.994.896.785.497.9
Have a car57.168.867.251.270.2
Have a phone55.229.96.602.1
Have a computer36.211.26.600
Have a cell phone75.460.765.658.553.2
Have Internet275.2000

Here's a graph that shows the same information for the three villages (not Jalisco or Cuquio) in 2010:

Percent of houses in Cuquio that...
Don't have a dirt floor60.677.195.4
Have a toilet67.791.3
Have running water29.243.451.3
Have drainage26.459.590.4
Have electricity66.994.198.5
Have a fridge59.587
Have a TV89.494.8
Have a car42.568.8
Have a phone16.229.9
Average # of occupants per home5.34.593.97

Percent of houses in Ojo de Agua Colorada that...
Don't have a dirt floor15.848.288.5
Have a toilet39.385.2
Have running water08.90
Have drainage5.332.188.5
Have electricity38.694.698.4
Have a fridge51.890.2
Have a TV85.796.7
Have a car21.467.2
Have a phone12.56.6
Average # of occupants per home5.294.234.15

Percent of houses in Los Sauces de Perez that...
Don't have a dirt floor63.497.6
Have a toilet34.182.9
Have running water9.846.3
Have drainage14.678
Have electricity97.697.6
Have a fridge43.985.4
Have a TV75.685.4
Have a car24.451.2
Have a phone00
Avg # occupants per home4.784.93

Percent of houses in Varas Dulces that...
Don't have a dirt floor38.538.287.2
Have a toilet20.672.3
Have running water12.858.823.4
Have drainage7.78.870.2
Have electricity097.1100
Have a fridge52.993.6
Have a TV94.197.9
Have a car38.270.2
Have a phone02.1
Avg # occupants per home5.235.213.89

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